Aspirating Smoke Detector
Aspirating smoke detectors (ASD), such as Xtralis' Very Early Warning Aspirating Smoke Detector (VESDA), can detect smoke before the human eye. Through the use of fans and sampling pipes, ASD systems actively draw smoke to itself, triggering an alarm up to 1,000 times faster than standard smoke alarms depending on the sensitivity configuration. ASD systems are an effective choice for clean rooms and facilities with highly flammable materials.
Spot-Type Heat-Sensing Fire Detectors
Amongst the most accurate detection devices, spot-type heat-sensing fire detectors alert from heat surpassing the pre-determined temperature. These devices are mainly used in confined spaces and boast rare false alarms.
- Linear Heat Detection: Linear Heat detection (LHD) systems are effective in all environments when properly designed. They use a heat sensitive wire coating to detect heat along its entire length. Once the ambient heat melts the protective coating, the inner wires touch, sounding an alarm. The coating can be customized to melt at different temperatures, depending on the environmental configurations. LHD systems are highly effective in all temperatures, allowing for flexible location options.
Automatic Fire Smoke Detectors
These devices can sense a smoldering fire quickly.
- Ionization smoke detectors: Ionizes the air surrounding the detector, causing the air to flow toward the detector. When smoke enters the detector, it disrupts the flow of ions and the alarm activates.
- Photoelectric light scattering smoke detectors: A light source is angled away from the sensor in the detector. When smoke enters, it reflects the light into the sensor, activating the alarm.
- Air aspirating sampling smoke detectors: A fan pulls the air into a sampling chamber where it is analyzed for evidence of fire.
- Linear beam smoke detectors: In an environment where ceiling smoke detectors may have difficulty detecting smoke due to stratification, a transmitter and receiver are advantageously placed to identify hard-to-detect smoke.
- Duct smoke detectors: Samples of air in the HVAC ducts are sampled. If smoke is detected, a signal is sent to the fire alarm control panel and an alert sounds.
Flame-Sensing Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
In facilities that house quick-burning materials, flame-sensing radiant energy fire detectors can help lessen the risks of deflagration by quickly identifying flaming fires.
- Ultraviolet (UV) flame detectors: UV wavelength of >300 nm can detect a fire or explosion within 3-4 milliseconds, giving the facility ample time to react. UV detectors sometimes activate falsely from UV sources like lightning, arc welding, radiation, and sunlight. To mitigate, a 3-5 second delay should be added to UV flame detectors.
- Infrared (IR) flame detectors: A photocell seeks out radiation from a flame and activates the alarm within 3-5 seconds of ignition.
- Spark/ember detectors: Detects fire before it fully ignites through radiant energy detection.
Gas-Sensing Detectors - Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detectors
In facilities where hazardous gas release is a concern, gas-sensing detectors activate before an unsafe amount accumulates.
When ignition causes a surge in pressure, the contacts on the depression plate close and a signal is sent to the fire alarm control panel.
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